Atoms – Electrons, Protons and Molecules

The Ideal Gas Law


Click here to to see the animation of molecules in motion. The Ideal Gas Law states that at constant temperature for a fixed mass, the absolute pressure and the volume of a gas are inversely proportional. To model the normal air we breath at 20°C we are dealing with free flowing molecules travelling in the range of a few nanometers per picosecond. We chose […]

Keeping Track of Energy Levels, Photon Emissions and Absorption


In his Autobiographical Notes in 1949, Einstein wrote of the special theory It is striking that the theory introduces two kinds of physical things, i.e., (1) measuring rods and clocks, and (2) all other things, e.g., the electromagnetic field, the material point, etc. In the last blog entry, we set the measuring rods to picometers (10‾¹²) and our clocks to […]

Electrons, Protons and the Coulomb Force


Before modelling protons and electrons under the coulomb force, a quick note about time scales and distance scales. Distances on the atomic scale for protons and atoms are often measured in picometers (10‾¹²), where the Bohr radius is 53pm. For electrons, distances can go as small as the Lorentz radius of 3 femtometers (10‾¹⁵). For tracking electrons, attoseconds (10‾¹⁸) is […]