Keeping Track of Energy Levels, Photon Emissions and Absorption

Proton Energy

In his Autobiographical Notes in 1949, Einstein wrote of the special theory It is striking that the theory introduces two kinds of physical things, i.e., (1) measuring rods and clocks, and (2) all other things, e.g., the electromagnetic field, the material point, etc. In the last blog entry, we set the measuring rods to picometers (10‾¹²) and our clocks to […]

Electrons, Protons and the Coulomb Force


Before modelling protons and electrons under the coulomb force, a quick note about time scales and distance scales. Distances on the atomic scale for protons and atoms are often measured in picometers (10‾¹²), where the Bohr radius is 53pm. For electrons, distances can go as small as the Lorentz radius of 3 femtometers (10‾¹⁵). For tracking electrons, attoseconds (10‾¹⁸) is […]