Particles – The Standard Model

Particles of the Standard Model

  Swirling Vortexes Hermann von Helmholtz (ca. 1821–1894) was a German physician and physicist who studied fluid dynamics. Specifically, Helmholtz studied vortexes in fluids and developed three theorems which still stand today. The second of Helmholtz’s theorems for vortex dynamics in inviscid fluid states: A vortex filament cannot end in a fluid; it must extend to the boundaries of the […]

Axioms and Forces

Mass attracts itself (gravity) and energy repels itself (dark energy). Mass is confined energy and energy travels at the speed of light. Here we use a fixed grid and fixed timesteps, similar to frames in a movie, to model the particles and forces of mass and energy. Animated physics is used to understand the properties of the real world. Once the […]


A wealthy man wants to predict the outcome of a horse race. Not knowing how, he looks for some expert advice. He talks to a biologist who says he could genetically engineer an unbeatable racehorse, but it would take a long time and lots and lots of money. He talks to a statistician who says he could predict the outcome […]