﻿ Animated Physics

# Animated Physics

#### What is Animated Physics?

Epicurus (ca. 341–270 BC) in a letter to Pythocles:

When one accepts one theory and rejects another which is equally consistent with the phenomenon in question, it is clear that one has thereby blundered out of any sort of proper physics and fallen into mythology.
Animated physics uses a fixed grid and fixed time steps, similar to frames in a movie, to model the particles and forces of matter and energy. You must run the animation for a period of time find out where a particle is at that time. You are not allowed to change the time frame or grid spacing while an animation is running. The world of animated physics is not deterministic. There is always a time and grid spacing smaller then the one you choose that could contain additional hidden variables.

#### Space, Time and Photons

In 1949, Einstein wrote:

“It is striking that the theory introduces two kinds of physical things, i.e., (1) measuring rods and clocks, and (2) all other things, e.g., the electromagnetic field, the material point, etc.”

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) definition of time: one second is 9.2 billion oscillations of a photon with 3.8×10⁻⁵ eVolts of energy. Definition of space: NIST has defined one meter to be the length of the path traveled by a photon in a vacuum in 1/(3.0×10⁸) part of a second.

## Clocks and Measuring Rods:

#### Rotating String Jets

Edward Witten (b.1947) noted:

“... the universe is a symphony of strings, and the 'Mind of God' is cosmic music resonating in 11-dimensional hyperspace.”

There is a limit to how much energy a photon can have. For a very tiny, very high energy photon, at some point, the gravitational bending exceeds the escape velocity of light. At this point, a tiny, very long often spinning string appears. We use rotating strings to build rotating ropes and large moving sheets.

## Rotating Strings:

 Left Handed Right Handed
 A right-handed and left-handed string. Both spin in unison as they move forward together. Two right-handed strings side by side will spin apart. As will two left handed strings.

When building particles, dimensions become variables. Position x/y/z in space and t for time. If spinning strings form a moving sheet on a surface, we need surface variables. For a torus surface, we need a torus bending radius variable and a torus thickness variable. For the position of the sheet on the surface, we need a SheetX and a SheetY variable. For the angle the sheet is moving at over the surface we need SheetA. For the torus, we only need 9 variables or 9 independent dimensions to describe it.

#### Turbulence and Virtual Particles

Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) found:

“A vortex filament cannot end in a fluid; it must extend to the boundaries of the fluid or form a closed path (torus)”.

Helmholtz characterized spinning tori by saying how much they were spinning sideways (around the hole) and how much they were spinning horizontally (through the hole). These two spin properties of a torus allow us to define the two properties as up/down or left/right. The spin properties lead us to name the Higgs, the W+, the W-, and the Z° particles.

 Higgs Boson Zº boson
 W+ Boson W- Boson

The formation of string jets generates these virtual particles that further degenerate into a series of stable and unstable real particles.

#### Electron and Neutrinos

Paul Dirac (1902-1984):

“The measure of greatness in a scientific idea is the extent to which it stimulates thought and opens up new lines of research.”

Paul Dirac used a spinor (a spinning surface of a torus), two of them in fact, to successfully mathematically model the electron. To make an electron, the W- particle torus loop must be twisted, broken and the pieces coupled as one torus captured by a second one. In the process, a knot of spinning string is discarded in what we call a neutrino.

 Electron Positron

An electron is a small spinning current loop holding a larger magnetic loop with defined north and south poles. Although confined to a very small area, about 2.8 femtometers (Lorentz radius = 2.8×10⁻¹⁵ meters), with the larger magnetic loop fully covering the smaller current loop. Electrons act as a “point” with respect to charge, since the charge emanates from the very center. Electrons act as a real particle with size when hit by other high speed particles.

The electron has two unstable cousins where one or both of the component spinors are unstable. These are the Muon and the Tau particles. The tau particle decays by popping a W- and becoming a tau neutrino. The W- decays into a muon and a muon neutrino. A similar decay path exists for the Muon to the Electron.

#### Gluons and Quarks

Sheldon Cooper, Big Bang Theory, Season2-Episode2:

“Matter clearly consists of tiny strings”
 Bottom/Anti-Bottom (Eta) Charm/Anti-Bottom (Charmed)

Gluons are a twisted up boson torus. If we take a spinning torus, twist it and break it into two (1/3 and 2/3), we end up with two gluons, a down and an up gluon. These gluon loops are twisted ropes that hold quark shells together. Gluons can decay directly into quark/antiquark pairs by untwisting part of their rope into a sheet. The sheet stabilizes as a large bubble we call the quark. The bubble has strings flowing through the top and bottom gluons linking different quarks or bubbles together in layers.